By David L Thurmond

Rome was once in a position to aid a big city inhabitants by way of supplying it with the rudiments of human food within the kind of processed meals. This quantity encompasses a cautious research of these nutrition strategies. The paintings is prepared at the foundation of the presumed significance of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items equivalent to legumes, greens and end result, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) that have been themselves the brokers for the upkeep of different meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological facts from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and smooth foodstuff technological know-how.

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O. Williams-Thorpe and R. S. 2 (1988): 275–89. 82 F. Antonelli, G. Nappi and L. 2 (2001): 167–89. cereals 45 faces. 83 A number of bronze weapons was found in one of the bakeries in Ostia, but some of the bronze articles identified as lance heads are now thought to be dosage cones, fitted into the square holes in the bedstone and cemented with lead, remains of which have also been found. Precisely how they controlled the flow of grain is unknown, but it may well be that their points were inserted into the bottom of a hopper suspended over the running stone.

That a similar mechanism is at work in our Roman silo is indicated by Varro’s admonition39 to those entering a sirus to wait for some time after removing the cap, since people have otherwise been suffocated. Obviously carbon dioxide is as effective in inhibiting human invaders as microbial ones. Granaries are prescribed by our authors for the villa owner, but effective storage was even more critical for the huge volume of grain imported to the city of Rome to feed the urban masses, and here, fortunately, we have significant archaeological evidence such as the extensive remains of the (probably spuriously named) Porticus Aemilia, a vast commercial granary or horreum near the Tiber River between the Aventine and Monte Testaccio [Fig.

3. 58 Agr. 4. Ash in his Loeb translates far as ‘spelt’ and compounds the mistake by rendering expinsi as ‘grinding’. Wrong on both counts: not ‘ground spelt’ but ‘pounded emmer’. 113. 56 57 cereals 37 such groats were offered for sale or were strictly for home consumption by the slaves themselves is impossible to answer. I have found no mention in the literature of the purchase of groats at a commercial mill-bakery in Rome, but given the paucity of such references that means very little. Milling of Bread Grains Conversely, there is little doubt that true milling of breads remained a domestic as well as commercial process throughout classical antiquity, at least on a modest and ad hoc basis.

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