By Richard Crandall, Marvin Levich, H. Rheingold

Computer know-how has develop into a reflect of what we're and a reveal on which we undertaking either our hopes and our fears for how the area is altering. past during this century, relatively within the post-World conflict II period of unparalleled development and prosperity, the social agreement among citi­ zens and scientists/engineers was once epitomized by means of the road Ronald Reagan promoted as spokesman for common electrical: "Progress is our so much impor­ tant product. " in additional contemporary a long time, post-Chernobyl, post-Challenger, post-Bhopal, post-Microsoft, the social agreement has gone through a transfor­ mation. extra everyone is doubtful, anxious, and downright against the proposal that extra know-how promises a greater lifestyles. what's a "better life"? Who merits and who loses whilst new applied sciences swap the best way we are living, paintings, research, and play? Who has a say within the means applied sciences are designed and deployed? the place are we going, are we yes we wish to move there, and who has the ability to do whatever approximately itt From the early days of the railroads, into the period of electrification, during the McLuhan age, a lot of the discourse approximately know-how has been hype, utopianism, and what a few historians have known as "the rhetoric of the technological chic. " we have now came across, notwithstanding, that now not every body gain economically or politically from technological change.

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A Network Orange: Logic and Responsibility in the Computer Age

Laptop know-how has turn into a replicate of what we're and a display on which we venture either our hopes and our fears for a way the realm is altering. prior during this century, really within the post-World struggle II period of unparalleled development and prosperity, the social agreement among citi­ zens and scientists/engineers used to be epitomized via the road Ronald Reagan promoted as spokesman for common electrical: "Progress is our so much impor­ tant product.

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It is one of many legends at the California Institute of Technology 23 Wooldridge and]ennings 1994. 24 Gedankenexperiment means "thought experiment," performed as though setting up a mental laboratory and carrying an imaginary experiment to its natural, intuitive conclusion. 25 The early twentieth century yielded some of the great examples of the Gedankenexperiment. Albert Einstein knew that E = me 2 could be derived simply by considering a lamp emanating light energy (and therefore an equivalent mass) inside a closed train car.

Would we not hesitate to call that chess? 8 A Lloyd square, named after the great puzzlist, is a square that is in some sense the least attractive place to move yet turns out to be the key to a problematic chess position. A Fischer region, named after the inimitable Bobby Fischer, is a region (in play space) of future move combinations that is very difficult to infer from the current position yet is where the 26 A Network Orange are virtually impossible to program, especially if all one does to improve chess software is increase machine horsepower and perhaps, via memory or bus expansion, inflate the overall play space.

20 Dynamic range is a measure of how different the softest signals (the faintest conceivable whisper) are from the loudest (jet engines, the threshold of pain). For the human ear, the ratio of loudest to softest power is on the order of a trillion. 32 A Network Orange kind of average displacement the size of an atom. Not only does the human ear have such a wide dynamic range, but the brain somehow is able to allow simultaneous regions of the range curve to be activated, as exemplified in the cocktail party effect we discussed before.

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