By Moshe Shoham (auth.)

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He may count steps, assuming he hnows the number he has to take, and when he has reached what he thinks must be seat 17, will sit down. But will it, in fact, be seat 17? He cannot be sure. The blind man is working in an open-loop system; he receives no feedback to allow him to correct any errors he may have made. The principle of closed-loop control is applied in nearly all existing industrial robots. Very few work in an open-loop mode. Each joint, in closed-loop control, includes a feedback unit known as an encoder, which provides information on the relative positions of the links.

Rotating axis 1 to a new position 90 degrees from the current position changes the motion of axis 2; instead of pitch motion, it now executes yaw motion. Figure 3-7 is an example of many possible robot wrist joint arrangements. Obviously, the ability to alter wrist attitude in various ways is a vital concern in robot design. Figure 3-15 is another example. It shows the initial position of the mechanical arm and two possible changes in the location of the end effector or in its orientation. Alternate position 1 shows a change in end effector orientation without location change.

47 Basic Concepts Hydraulic Drive These units, following: * * when used in robots, include the Motors for revolute motion Cylinders for prismatic motion Hydraulic drive uni ts cause motion in parts such as pistons, by compressing oil. Figure 3-17 shows a prismatic hydraulic unit. Control in this unit is accomplished by a controller that activates the valves. This causes the piston to move, creating motion of the load, because of differences in oil pressure between the two portions of the cylinder which are divided by the piston.

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