By A.I. Mal'cev

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2 Structural Introns and Semantic Introns The above considerations suggest an additional classification of introns in linear GP. This is based on a special type of noneffective code that results from the imperative structure of programs – not from program semantics. Hence, two types of noneffective instructions may be discerned: structural introns and semantic introns [21]. 4 (structural intron) Structural introns denote single noneffective instructions that emerge in a linear program from manipulating noneffective registers.

Intron elimination in LGP. Only effective code (black) is executed. 1 detects all structural introns in a linear genetic program which does not employ loops (backward jumps) or jumps over more than one instruction [21]. More generally, such an elimination of dead code represents a form of code optimization that is applied, for instance, during compilation [1]. The algorithm includes a simple dependence analysis which identifies all instructions influencing the final program output. 1) as an effectiveness flag.

11. Both the best program during training and the best program during validation define the output of the algorithm. Fitness of an individual program is computed by an error function on a set of input-output examples (ik , ok ). These so-called fitness cases define the problem that should be solved or approximated by a program. , the squared difference between the predicted output gp(ik ) and the desired output ok summed over all n training examples. A squared error function penalizes larger errors more heavily than smaller errors.

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