By Daniel V. Schroeder

This article appears at thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. half I introduces strategies of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics from a unified view. elements II and III discover additional purposes of classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. all through, the emphasis is on real-world functions.

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7. The total change in the energy of a system is the sum of the heat added to it and the work done on it. A < W - really just a statement of the law of conservation of energy. However, it dates from a time when this law was just being discovered, and the relation between energy and heat was still controversial. So the equation was given a more mysterious name, which is still in use: the first law of thermodynamics. The official SI unit of energy is the joule, defined as 1 kg·m 2 /S2. ) Traditionally, however, heat has been measured in calories, where 1 cal was defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1°C (while no work is being done on it).

Regardless of these details, the rate of heat conduction obeys a mathematical law that is not hard to guess. 16). We would expect the amount of heat Q that passes through the window to be di rectly proportional to the window's total area A, and to the amount of time that passes, ,6"t. We would probably expect Q to be inversely proportional to the thick ness of the window, ,6"x. Finally, we would expect Q to depend on the indoor and outdoor temperatures, in such a way that Q = 0 if these temperatures are the same.

I I : . . ··1 I • I, . ~ '. ' . 18. Heat conduction across the dotted line occurs because the molecules moving from box 1 to box 2 have a different average energy than the molecules moving from box 2 to box 1. For free motion between these boxes, each should have a width of roughly one mean free path. 1 x * For that matter, I haven't even given a definition of what constitutes a collision. After all, even when molecules pass at a distance, they attract and deflect each other somewhat. For a more careful treatment of transport processes in gases, see Reif (1965).